The Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is a key element of any policy initiative aiming at creating jobs and alleviating poverty. The Government of Pakistan recognizes the importance of the TVET sector and intends to overcome the challenges that the sector faces such as ensuring quality, access, equity and relevance.
The TVET Reform Support Programme supports this process in collaboration with the National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC), the Technical and Vocational Training Authorities (TEVTAs) in the provinces and regions, and a number of other stakeholders from private and public sector. To ensure labor-market orientation, a key element of the Programme is to give employers a central role in all aspects of TVET planning and delivery.
The Programme, therefore, supports the introduction of cooperative training in Pakistan, in which training institutes and enterprises share the responsibility for vocational education. The approach of the component “Cooperative Training and Green Skills” is based on the German Dual Training System and has been modified to match Pakistan’s needs for a skilled workforce. The component assists training institutes, enterprises and TVET authorities to implement the courses.
The Cooperative Vocational Training (CVT) was initially launched as Germany Pakistan Training Initiative (GPATI), entailing certain instruments to involve enterprises in planning and delivery of cooperative training since 2013. The objective of this training programme is to showcase that the involvement of enterprises is key for ensuring demand-orientation in the TVET-sector aimed at teaching the right knowledge, skills and attitude for performing a job. This scheme has been initiated in Punjab and Sindh while the component has now extended its activities to innovative sectors, such as further training in the area of green skills that includes renewable energy and energy efficiency. On the basis of the lessons learnt from the pilot phase, the initiative is now transformed into a systematic approach to promote CVT in Pakistan.
CVT focuses on developing a comprehensive partnership between TVET institutes and companies in the field of vocational training through combining theoretical and simulated practical training in TVET institutes with workplace-based learning in the companies. Rules and procedures for training partners are needed to realize training and ensuring the quality as well as issuing national and international recognition of certificates in the light of National Vocational Qualifications Framework (NVQF). The systematic approach envisages the strengthening of coordination and ownership by the involved partner organizations. In this way, CVT development will showcase that the involvement of enterprises in the planning and delivery of training is key and provides lessons learnt for the TVET reform process and the modernization of the apprenticeship scheme.
The cooperative vocational training scheme generates multiple benefits for the involved stakeholders.
A participating company has direct and indirect benefits that include reduced setting-in costs for new staff along with higher productivity through recruiting professionals, who are trained by the same enterprise according to its own requirements. It also gives a better company image in the market especially for branding purposes and helps the company to get involved in all stages of implementation for a focuson the skill needs of the companies.
Young people gain access to vocational training, which considers the needs of the labormarket as the cooperative vocational training provides the opportunity to seek on-the-job knowledge, work experience and technical skills at the shop floor level. It supports the delivery of the theoretical knowledge by practical application and in problem-solving hands-on work situations.
Through this experience, a trainee develops positive work habits and attitudes, gains work routine and develop the ability to work cooperatively as a team member.
It helps trainees to focus on a specific career path and to see the occupational perspectives during the training along with a recognised certificate in light of NVQF, occupation-specific training and work experience and gaining insights to develop an individual career plan.
Training Institute Benefits:
Cooperative training programmes require a three-way working relationship among the technical school, the employer and the trainee.
Training institutions will become more aware of changes in the labour market and the type of knowledge and skills trainees need in order to effectively compete in the world of work. Training Institutes have a reduced training burden in terms of training hours.
The new proximity to the companies also leads to higher demands on teachers to be qualified according to the latest state of the art. At the same time this partnership facilitates the further professional training of teachers. Altogether, cooperative training contributes to economic and social development in Pakistan through raising the skills of the future workforce.